The Institute of International Education (IIE) is a 501(c) organization which focuses on International Student Exchange and Aid, Foreign Affairs, and International Peace and Security. In collaboration with governments, foundations and other sponsors, IIE creates programs of study and training for students, educators and professionals from various sectors. The organization says its mission is to "advance international education and access to education worldwide". Currently, much of its work focuses study abroad programs, supporting students and scholars, policy research, and being a central resource on international exchange opportunities. Some of its most recognized programs include the flagship Fulbright Program; and Gilman Scholarships administered for the U.S. Department of State. It awards the Andrew Heiskell Award. The institute was established in 1919 at the cessation of World War I. Nobel Peace Prize winners Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University, and Elihu Root, former Secretary of State, and Stephen Duggan, Sr., Professor of Political Science at the College of the City of New York (and IIEs first President) formed the Institute of International Education with the outlook that educational exchange would incite understanding between nations. In 2009, the institute celebrated its 90th anniversary. Over the years it has developed into one of the largest references for international exchange in the world. IIE began as an organized student, faculty and teacher exchange with several European governments. At the time, IIE President Stephen Duggan influenced the U.S. government to create a new category of nonimmigrant student visas, bypassing post-war quotas set by the Immigration Act of 1921. In the 1930s, IIE began expanding its activities beyond Europe, opening the first exchanges with the Soviet Union and Latin America. After World War II, the Institute facilitated the establishment of what is now NAFSA and the CIEE. In the 1940s, IIE aided more than 4,000 U.S. students to study and work on reconstruction projects at European universities devastated by the war.