GrammaTech is a software-development tools vendor based in Ithaca, New York. The company was founded in 1988 as a technology spin-off of Cornell University. They now develop CodeSonar, a static analysis tool for source code and binaries, and perform cyber-security research. CodeSonar is a source code and binary code analysis tool that performs a whole-program, interprocedural analysis on C, C++, Java, and binary executables. It identifies programming bugs and security vulnerabilities in software. CodeSonar is used in the Defense/Aerospace, Medical, Industrial Control, Electronic, Telecom/Datacom and Transportation industries. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health uses it to detect defects in fielded medical devices. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and NASA used it in its Study on Sudden Unintended Acceleration in the electronic throttle control systems of Toyota vehicles. CodeSurfer is a program-understanding tool. Program constructs—including preprocessor directives, macros, and C++ templates—are analyzed. CodeSurfer calculates a variety of representations that can be explored through the graphical user interface or accessed through the optional programming interface.