Personalis

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The chief justice (Hungarian: királyi személynök, Latin: personalis praesentiae regiae in judiciis locumtenens, German: Königliche Personalis) was the personal legal representative of the King of Hungary, who issued decrees of judicial character on behalf of the monarch authenticated with the royal seal, performed national notarial activities and played an important role in the organisation of lawyers training. Later the chief justice was the head of the Royal Court of Justice (Hungarian: Királyi Ítélotábla, Latin: Tabula Regia Iudiciaria) and the Tribunal of the Chief Justice (Hungarian: személynöki szék, Latin: sedes personalitia), the highest legal forum of civil cases. The office of personalis evolved since the early 15th century within the royal chancellery. In the beginning, the king was represented by the secret chancellor in the judiciary (judge of personal presence). The first known chief justice was Janus Pannonius, a Croato-Hungarian humanist poet who returned to Hungary after finishing studies at the University of Padua in 1458, the coronation year of Matthias Corvinus. Pannonius served as chief justice until 1459, when he was elected as the Bishop of Pécs. Until the 1464 reform, the complete list of chief justices is unknown. It is certain that Albert Vetési, Bishop of Veszprém held the office for a short time around 1460. From the 1370s, during the reign of Louis I, the lord chancellor also had a judicial function. He became judge of special presence (Latin: specialis presentia regia). This position was held by Roman Catholic prelates, therefore the judicial function was performed by their deputies. Consequently, a dual judicial system existed in the Kingdom of Hungary until the administrative reform of 1464.

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Bioinformatics Scientist

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