Penn Schoen Berland (PSB) is a market research, political polling and strategic consulting firm based in the United States. The firm is named for partners Mark Penn, Douglas Schoen and Michael Berland. PSB was founded in 1977 and acquired by the British-based WPP Group in 2001. The company is known for its political polling on behalf of Bill Clinton and, since the 1970s, PSB has worked on behalf of numerous political campaigns in the U.S. and internationally, contributing to the election of more than 25 political leaders worldwide. Its founders are also credited with the introduction of overnight polling. PSBs notable corporate research and communications work includes research for Microsoft during the 2001 United States v. Microsoft antitrust case and advising McDonalds in the UK to focus on food quality in 2005. Company founders Mark Penn and Douglas Schoen met at the Horace Mann prep school, where they were both students, and they later attended Harvard University together. After attending a class on polling taught by Bill Schneider, Schoen asked Penn to go into business with him. In 1974, Schoen brought Penn into Hugh Careys campaign for New York governor and in 1977, they established the firm. In 1977, Penn and Schoen were hired by consultant David Garth to carry out polling for Ed Kochs campaign for mayor of New York City. The company introduced overnight tracking polls and computer analysis of results, which informed the campaigns media strategy and helped Koch win the election.