Kaiser Permanente (/'ka?z?r p??rm?'n?nte?/ – (KP)) is an integrated managed care consortium, based in Oakland, California, United States, founded in 1945 by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney Garfield. Kaiser Permanente is made up of three distinct but interdependent groups of entities: the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Inc. (KFHP) and its regional operating subsidiaries; Kaiser Foundation Hospitals; and the regional Permanente Medical Groups. As of 2014, Kaiser Permanente operates in eight states and the District of Columbia, and is the largest managed care organization in the United States. As of December 31, 2015, Kaiser Permanente had 10.2 million health plan members, 186,497 employees, 18,652 physicians, 51,010 nurses, 38 medical centers, and 622 medical offices. As of December 31, 2015, the non-profit Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Kaiser Foundation Hospitals entities reported a combined $1.9 billion in net income on $60.7 billion in operating revenues. Each Permanente Medical Group operates as a separate for-profit partnership or professional corporation in its individual territory, and while none publicly reports its financial results, each is primarily funded by reimbursements from its respective regional Kaiser Foundation Health Plan entity. KFHP is one of the largest not for profit organizations in the United States. KPs quality of care has been highly rated and attributed to a strong emphasis on preventive care, its doctors being salaried rather than paid per service, and an attempt to minimize the time patients spend in high-cost hospitals by carefully planning their stay. However, Kaiser has had disputes with its employees' unions, faced civil and criminal charges for patient dumping, faced action by regulators over the quality of care it provided, especially to patients with mental health issues, and has faced criticism from activists and action from regulators over the size of its cash reserves.