OpenQwaq is open source computer software for immersive collaboration, which enables organizations to implement online 3D virtual world workspaces for their specific needs. OpenQwaq is based on the Teleplace technology, a conferencing platform that has been in the market since 2007, with the name Qwaq Forums until 2009. Both OpenQwaq and Teleplace are based on the Squeak open source implementation of Smalltalk and the Croquet Project. The main developers of this family of technologies include Alan Kay, David Smith, Andreas Raab and David Reed, whose 1978 doctoral thesis on naming and synchronizations in a decentralized computer system introduced many of the main concepts. Teleplace virtual workspaces were used by companies, universities, organizations and U.S. government agencies, such as the Air Force, Army, Navy and Department of Veterans Affairs for training and collaboration, have applications to telepresence based e-learning, and have been used for popular interactive online technology talks. Teleplace ceased operations in December 2011. 3D ICC Purchased the IP from Teleplace in 2012. OpenQwaq was announced on the Teleplace blog and other IT news sites in May 2011.