The Cleveland FES Center is a consortium of three nationally recognized institutions: Department of Veteran Affairs, MetroHealth Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University. Established in 1991, the Center focuses on the application of electrical currents to either generate or suppress activity in the nervous system. This technique is known as functional electrical stimulation (FES). FES can produce and control the movement of otherwise paralyzed limbs for standing and hand grasp, activate visceral bodily functions such as bladder control or respiration, create perceptions such as skin sensibility, arrest undesired activity such as pain or spasm, and facilitate natural recovery and accelerate motor relearning. The Functional Electrical Stimulation Center was founded to introduce FES into clinical practice, translating fundamental knowledge of electrical stimulation of paralyzed nerves and muscles into useful systems that enhanced the independence and quality of life for people with disabilities.