Fairmont Hotels & Resorts is a Canadian operator of luxury hotels and resorts. Currently, Fairmont operates properties in 22 countries: Canada, the United States, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Bermuda, Peoples Republic of China, Egypt, Germany, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Monaco, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, and United Kingdom. Fairmont is known in Canada for its famous historic hotels and resorts such as The Empress in Victoria, the Hotel Vancouver in Vancouver, The Palliser in Calgary, the Hotel Macdonald in Edmonton, the Château Laurier in Ottawa, The Royal York in Toronto, the Banff Springs Hotel in Alberta and the Château Frontenac in Québec. Many of these hotels were originally built by the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Fairmonts portfolio also includes several other landmark and icon properties including The Plaza in New York, the Savoy Hotel in London, the Peace Hotel in Shanghai and the Makkah Clock Royal Tower Hotel in Makkah (Mecca), Saudi Arabia.