American Science and Engineering Inc, (AS&E) is an American manufacturer of advanced X-ray equipment and related technologies, originating in 1958 as a developer for NASA, with an early focus on X-ray astronomy led by Riccardo Giacconi. Among other developments Giacconis team made possible the Einstein Observatory (the first full imaging X-ray telescope, launched 1978), and Giacconis work at AS&E saw him win the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics. Among other things, AS&E provides both transmission X-ray and backscatter X-ray equipment for airports, seaports, critical infrastructures, border crossings and other locations where security scanning is required. AS&E has also developed a mobile backscatter X-ray van (ZBV). In June 2016, OSI Systems offered to purchase the company for $269 million, The deal needs to be approved by regulators and shareholders, but this is expected before the end of 2016.