A123 Systems, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Wanxiang Group, is a developer and manufacturer of advanced lithium-ion (lithium iron phosphate) batteries and energy storage systems for transportation and other commercial and industrial applications. The company was founded in 2001 by Dr. Yet-Ming Chiang, Dr. Bart Riley, and Ric Fulop. By 2009, it had about 2,500 employees globally and was headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts. The companys original product technology was based upon materials initially developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 2010, A123 received a US$249 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy for building battery production facilities. Approximately $129 million of the grant was used to build a 550 MWh battery plant in Livonia and another in Romulus. An untapped $120 million grant was abandoned by A123 by May 2012. The company laid off 125 workers in December 2011 as demand for partner Fiskers automobiles had slackened. A123 Systems had more than 3000 employees as of December 2012.